is the removal of dead, dying, diseased, interfering and weakly attached branches in the tree’s crown in order to enhance the tree’s health.
(Perimeter Reduction) is used to reduce the size of a tree. Best accomplished by cutting branches back to the trunk or back to laterals capable of sustaining the remaining branch and assuming apical dominance.
is the removal of lateral branches with the intent to provide better air circulation and light penetration and also the reduction of excessive end weighted scaffolding branches.
is performed to improve the structure, form, and appearance of trees that have been severely headed, vandalized, or storm damaged. Structural Pruning is pruning that influences tree orientation, spacing, growth rate, strength of attachments and ultimate size of the branches.
is selective removal or reduction of branches in the tree’s crown to allow a specific view of an object from a predetermined point.
Young Tree Training
is to promote good structure, establish a dominant leader by subordinating competing stems, space major branches apart by removing or shortening nearby branches, and anticipate future form and function. Train and prune early to avoid cutting large branches later.
is a training system that involves severe heading the first year, and sprout removal annually or every few years to keep large growing trees to a modest size or to maintain a formal appearance. The pollarding process should be started when the tree is young. Pollarding is a labour intensive technique and may not be effective on every species of tree.
Cabling and bracing
is used in order to minimize failure of weakly attached multiple stems, thus preserving a tree’s life and reducing hazard potential.
(topping) or heading back is not usually recommended due to the following; it leads to tree stress, decay, sun scald, creates hazards from weakly attached shoots, is unsightly and is expensive due to maintenance.